WANT A PRETERIST ANSWER TO A SPECIFIC END TIME PROPHECY?
WHAT IS PRETERISM? Preterism, Preterist Theology and the Preterist view of eschatology is the Christian belief that all end time prophecies have been fulfilled.
NEW EVIDENCE ADDED TO EXISTING COMMENTARY AND ARTICLES ALMOST DAILY!
The following may seem unbelievable. However, all information is taken from unbiased historical records and is easily verifiable.
Critics of preterism expose their ignorance of Roman history by their criticisms. These people claim that such and such a prophecy has not occurred–meanwhile Roman historical records say that it has!
If Jesus returned in His generation as He promised (MARK 14:61-62, JOHN 21:22-23 and MATTHEW 24), then our hope of heaven is secure. If not, then we as Christians “are of all people most to be pitied.” (1 Cor 15:19)
THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF PRETERISM: FULL PRETERISM AND PARTIAL PRETERISM
Full Preterism is the belief that all end time prophecies have been fulfilled.
Partial Preterism is the belief that some end time prophecies have been fulfilled. Most Biblical scholars are partial preterists to varying degrees. Though the following commentary will show that all end time prophecies have been fulfilled, this is not evidence against the partial preterist view. Perhaps the first century events that fulfilled all end time prophecies were types or shadows pointing to the ultimate fulfillment of these predictions again in the distant future?
WHY IS JESUS NOT RULING ON EARTH?
In A.D. 33 day became night, and in A.D. 66 night became day. These two miracles broke the covenant of Jeremiah 33:20-21. Thus the Messiah would not rule physically on an earthly throne. Instead, Christ rules the world at the right hand of God in heaven (Heb 8:1): “[T]he Most High does not live in houses made by men. . . . ‘Heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool (Acts 7:48-49).’” The Messianic kingdom is called the kingdom of heaven in the Gospels because it is centered in heaven. It is here that the saints also ultimately rule over heaven and earth with Christ on His heavenly throne (Rev 3:21) while experiencing a blissful, loving existence with Christ after death.
WHAT ABOUT THE NEW JERUSALEM?
The New Jerusalem is the church. Because it is present in both heaven and earth and because the church is destined for heaven, the church is described in the likeness of the Jerusalem that is in heaven mentioned in Hebrews 12:22 and Galatians 4:26. Testimony from near-death experiences suggests that it exists right now!
MOSTLY JUST APOCALYPTIC RHETORIC AND CRYPTIC SYMBOLISM?
HAVE ALL BIBLE END TIME PROPHECIES INCLUDING REVELATION REALLY BEEN FULFILLED IN THE JEWISH WAR?
There is CERTAINLY no Christian View of Eschatology (End Time Prophecy) that has more Biblical and Historical Evidence than Preterism.
THE FOLLOWING ONLY SCRATCHES THE SURFACE OF THE CUMULATIVE EVIDENCE.
Preterist Background Info
Preterist View of the Beast With the Wounded Head
The Book of Revelation is Apocalyptic language. This literary style is ancient poetry that wraps-up real events in poetic symbolism to give these events meaning. For example, the fact that the beast is said to rise out of the sea (Rev. 13:1) and earth (Rev. 13:11) does not just denote where the beast (Rome) is situated. Throughout Revelation and much of the rest of the Bible sea and Abyss signify both foreign nations and the Abyss (the realm of the dead) at the same time (see In the Bible “Earth” Signifies the Specific Land Addressed While “Sea” Symbolizes Foreign Nations and The Poetic Biblical Link Between “Sea” and “Abyss”). Thus the beast seen rising out of the earth (soil) and Abyss (realm of the dead) is meant as a double entendre also pointing to the resurrection of the beast. But before addressing how the beast rises from the dead, let us first see how it was wounded.
“One of the heads of the beast had a fatal wound …” (Rev. 13:3)
As shown in the PRETERIST COMMENTARY ON REVELATION at the bottom of this page there appear to be NO BIBLE PROPHECIES YET TO BE FULFILLED.
Preterism and the Beast Whose Wound Had Been Healed
“ . . . but the fatal wound had been healed.” (Rev. 13:3)
Preterism and the Beast Who Rises Out of the Earth
Preterism and the Beast Whose Wound Had Been Healed, the Beast out of the Earth, the False Prophet and the Lawless One
The “beast whose wound had been healed” (Rev 13:3); the “beast who rises out of the Abyss” (death) (Rev 11:7); the “beast who once was (alive), now is not (dead) and yet will come” (rise from the dead) (Rev 17:8); and “the beast who rises out of the earth” (Rev 13:11) (Resurrection is a “rising out of the earth”) ALL denote the RESURRECTION of the beast fulfilled in the restoration of the Roman Empire under the Flavian Dynasty:
The Lawless One and the Beast out of the Earth
“He sets himself up in God’s temple displaying himself as a god.” (2 Thess. 2:4)
“It set up an image of the beast who was wounded by the sword and yet lived.” (Rev. 13:14)
“The 2nd beast was given power to give breath to the image of the 1st beast, so that it could speak and cause all who refused to worship the image to be killed.” (Rev. 13:15)
“And now the Romans … brought their ENSIGNS to the TEMPLE and set them against its eastern gate. There they SACRIFICED TO THEM and made Titus IMPERATOR.” (Wars 6.6.1)
After the reign of Tiberius the title imperator was only granted to the emperor. Meaning Titus would have been treated as emperor at that time. Titus’ army came from Rome’s eastern provinces where THEY CUSTOMARILY WORSHIPED THE LIVING EMPEROR. Thus Titus could not have escaped being worshiped in the Temple in A.D. 70 beside his IMAGE on the ENSIGN called the numina legionum.
REALIZED ESCHATOLOGY AND THE BEAST OUT OF THE EARTH CONTINUED . . .
“And it performed great signs, even CAUSING FIRE TO COME DOWN FROM HEAVEN to the earth in view of men.” (Rev. 13:13)
In 1 Kings 18 Elijah calls down fire from heaven before ordering all who would not worship YHWH to be killed. Like the prophet Elijah, Titus (the false prophet of Revelation 19:20) also calls down fire from heaven before ordering all who would not worship Caesar to be killed (Wars 6.6.3.) This act qualifies Titus as a false prophet per Dt. 13:1-5. Well illustrating the poetic depth of Rev, this “fire from heaven” symbolizes Rome in at least 3 complimentary ways.
PRETERIST VIEW OF THE MARK OF THE BEAST?
(It’s not JUST a spiritual mark)
The numerical values of the letters of the names of the TRINITY of the beast; Caesar NERO (A.D. 54-68) VESPASIAN (A.D. 69-79) and TITUS (A.D. 79-81); each add up to 666.
“ It FORCED all to receive a mark on their right hand or forehead, SO THAT THEY COULD NOT BUY OR SELL UNLESS THEY HAD THE MARK, which is the name of the beast or the number of its name. Let the person who has insight calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man. That number is 666.” (Rev. 13:16-18)
PRETERISM AND THE ABOMINATION THAT CAUSES DESOLATION
HOW IS THE ABOMINATION THAT CAUSES DESOLATION ALSO AN ARMY?
Josephus says the Roman ensigns were an ABOMINATION to Jews (Ant. 18.3.1; 18.5.3). The abomination that causes desolation is the Roman armies with their ABOMINABLE ensigns (and sacrilegious actions that mimicked the Greeks) which literally caused the desolation of Israel.
What about Mt 24:15? Wasn’t it too late to flee Jerusalem when the Romans set up the ensigns in the Temple? Yes. However, Mt 24:15 literally reads, “When therefore you shall see the abomination of desolation which having been spoken of by the Prophet Daniel standing in the Holy Place the one reading let him understand then those in Judea let them flee to the mountains.” The bold text above appears to be parenthetical intended to call the reader’s attention to the abomination of desolation of Dan 9:26-27 (the prince who set up the abomination in the Temple). At least “the one reading let him understand” must be parenthetical since Jesus SPOKE to His disciples, He did not WRITE to them. Since parenthesis did not exist at the time context clues are used to determine where parenthesis should be placed. I believe Mt 24:15 should be written, “When therefore you shall see the abomination of desolation (which having been spoken of by Daniel standing in the holy place the one reading let him understand) then those in Judea let them flee to the mountains.” Here Mt 24:15 tells people to leave the city as soon as they see the abomination of desolation, not necessarily when it stands in the Temple. When read this way, Mt 24:15 now jives perfectly with its synoptic equivalent: “When you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, you will know that its desolation is near. Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains[.]” (Lk 21:20-21) It also honors Mt 24:15’s clear reference to Dan 9:26-27:
“The people of the PRINCE will DESTROY THE CITY AND SANCTUARY. The end will come like a flood: WAR will continue until the end, and desolations have been decreed. He will confirm a covenant for one ‘7.’ In the MIDDLE OF THE ‘7’ HE WILL PUT AN END TO SACRIFICE AND OFFERING. And on A WING OF THE TEMPLE HE WILL SET UP AN ABOMINATION THAT CAUSES DESOLATION.” (Dan 9:26-27)
PRETERIST COMMENTARY ON DANIEL 7: THE LITTLE HORN IS ALSO CAESAR TITUS
“As for the 10 horns, out of this kingdom 10 kings will arise; and another will arise after them, he will be different from the previous ones and will subdue 3 kings.” (Dan 7:24)
PRETERIST COMMENTARY ON THE LITTLE HORN, CAESAR TITUS
In Wars of the Jews, Titus and Vespasian are almost portrayed as saints just as the Antichrist is expected to be and not unlike the way Nero was depicted while still alive. Wars was written during Vespasian’s reign by Josephus, an eyewitness of the war and close friend of Vespasian and Titus who even adopted their name “Flavius.” Josephus was instructed to write this history as propaganda to solidify the Flavian rule as Vespasian feared assassination. This means all unfavorable details were censored. Though present in other historical accounts, some information below is understandably absent from Wars.
“This horn MADE WAR WITH THE SAINTS, and prevailed.” (Dan 7:21)
“He will SPEAK AGAINST THE MOST HIGH.” (Dan 7:25)
“The beast was given authority for 42 MTHS. . . . And he opened his mouth to BLASPHEME GOD AND HIS TABERNACLE.” (Rev. 13:5-6)
PRETERIST VIEW OF THE LITTLE HORN, CAESAR TITUS
PRETERIST VIEW OF REVELATION 9: THE LOCUST ARMY UNDER APOLLYON IS THE ROMAN ARMY IN ISRAEL UNDER TITUS.
As stated above, Rev. is Apocalyptic literature which is ancient poetry full of double and triple entendres. This fact is well illustrated in Rev. 9. Each Roman legion carried and was represented by a Zodiac sign. Using this fact as a clue to the Roman identity of this army, Rev. 9 then goes a step further describing Titus’ army using ONLY attributes of the Zodiac visible on Passover when Jerusalem killed Jesus and Titus began his attack on the city. This Zodiac symbolism not only describes Titus’ soldiers, it also hints at their Roman identity while also pointing to the time of their attack!
As shown in the PRETERIST COMMENTARY ON REVELATION below there appear to be NO BIBLE PROPHECIES YET TO BE FULFILLED.
See the Red Links at the BOTTOM OF THIS PAGE for a Much More In-Depth REALIZED ESCHATOLOGY COMMENTARY on All Major End Time Prophecies
THE TWO WITNESSES
The miraculous powers the 2 witnesses possess is a natural consequence of their identity which is repeatedly implied throughout Rev 11.
How Could Titus be the Lawless One/False Prophet etc if He Did NOT Die in A.D. 70 (Rev 19:20, 2 Th 2:8)?
[The beast (Vespasian) and false prophet (Titus)] “were thrown ALIVE into the fiery lake of burning sulfur.” (Rev 19:20)
This is because the LAKE OF FIRE/ABYSS symbolizes FOREIGN NATIONS as do ALL its synonyms (SEA, WATERS, FLOOD etc.): “The WATERS you saw, where the prostitute sits, are PEOPLES, MULTITUDES, NATIONS AND LANGUAGES.” (Rev 17:15) “Rescue me from the WATERS, from the hands of FOREIGNERS [.]” (Ps 144:7) “The Lord is about to bring against them the mighty FLOODWATERS of the Euphrates—the king of ASSYRIA.” (Is 8:7-8) There are many other exs. (Dan 7; 9:26; 11:10, 40; Ps 65:7; Isaiah 17:12; 60:5; Jer 46:7-8; 47:1-2; 51:55-56; Ez 26:3; Na 1:8.)
“Then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will overthrow (anaireo) with the breath of his mouth and destroy (katargeo) by the splendor of his coming.” (2 Thess 2:8)
Anaireo (overthrow) and katargeo (destroy) actually mean “take away” and “remove/render inactive” respectively as illustrated by their use in Acts 7:21; Heb 10:9; 1 Cor 6:13; 13:10; 2 Cor 3:14; Gal 5:4, Rom 7:2; 6:6 where they clearly do NOT mean “overthrow” or “destroy.” Thus 2 Th 2:8 is better translated: “Then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will take away (anaireo) with the breath of his mouth and remove (katargeo) by the splendor of his coming.” After Jerusalem fell, Titus immediately returned to Rome (the Abyss/lake of fire) and was thus “taken away” and “removed” in A.D. 70.
PRETERIST VIEW OF THE WHORE OF BABYLON
THE WHORE OF BABYLON EXPLAINED! A PRETERIST COMMENTARY
JERUSALEM HAS THE MARK OF THE BEAST WHICH IS WHY “BABYLON THE GREAT” IS WRITTEN ON HER “FOREHEAD.”
The fact that Jerusalem has the “name of the beast” (Babylon the Great) on her “forehead” in Rev 17:5 means that she has the mark of the beast. The mark of the beast is on the “forehead” and is “the name of the beast.” (Rev 13:16-17) This mark is the opposite of that mentioned in Rev 14:1: “[A]nd before me was the Lamb . . . and with him 144,000 WHO HAD HIS NAME and his Father’s name WRITTEN ON THEIR FOREHEADS.” The saints have the “name” of their king on their “forehead” because they are one with Christ (John 17:20-23) which is why they are called the “Body of Christ.” (Eph 5:23) The saints become one with Christ through the marriage between Christ and the New Jerusalem in Rev 21:2. The saints are the New Jerusalem as they are also marked with the name of this city on their foreheads: “I will write on them the name of God AND THE NAME OF GOD’S CITY, THE NEW JERUSALEM.” (Rev 3:12) Through this marriage, the saints become one with Christ as a wife becomes one with her husband. (Eph 5:31) In the same way that the church becomes one body and one flesh with Christ and is thus called by Christ’s name (the Body of Christ) through marriage (Rev 21:2), apostate Jerusalem also became one with Babylon and is called by this name (Rev 17:5) through adultery (1 Cor 6:16). And as the saints are marked with the name of their true king (Rev 14:1) and the city of their true citizenship regardless of where they live (Rev 3:12), apostate Jerusalem is also labeled with the name of her true king and his city, “BABYLON THE GREAT,” in Revelation 17:5. Jerusalem’s true king is Caesar according to Jn 19:15: “We have no king but Caesar!”
JERUSALEM (THE WHORE OF BABYLON) IS ALSO LITERALY EMBODIED BY THE FIRSTBORN PRINCESS OF JUDAEA AND SAMARIA: QUEEN BERENICE.
Throughout Revelation each kingdom is embodied by its king or quintessential human representative. For ex., the beast (Rome) is embodied by the Caesars and the heavenly Jerusalem (Gal 4:26) is embodied by the Virgin Mary in Rev 12:1-4. Likewise, the whore of Babylon is embodied by the famously beautiful and sexually scandalous Queen Berenice, the firstborn daughter of Agrippa I (king of Judaea and Samaria). Rev 17-18 were also fulfilled in the life of Berenice, the human embodiment of adulterous Jerusalem.
SURPRISING EVIDENCE THAT JERUSALEM AND HER PRINCESS ARE THE WHORE OF BABYLON
Babylon conquered Jerusalem in the 6th century B.C. and astrology, their system of divining the future using the stars, permeated Israel and Rome. In Rev God uses the constellations of ancient Babylon to convey the fate of spiritual Babylon. Thus many of the symbols in Rev were visible to John’s audience. In Gn 1:14, “God said, ‘Let there be lights in the sky . . . AND LET THEM SERVE AS SIGNS.’” Then concerning the end, Jesus says, “There will be signs in the sun, moon and stars (Lk 21:25).” Though John refers to Babylonian constellations, he does not violate Dt 4:19. John sees the heavenly bodies as signs, not as deities.
Revelation 13 is about Vespasian and Titus Saving the Empire after its Near Collapse from Civil War at the Death of Nero. Israel was the Last Pocket of Resistance. Revelation 13 is About the Flavian Triumph Where Rome (the Beast) Celebrated the Fall of Babylon (Jerusalem).
“They WORSHIPED the beast and asked, ‘Who is like the beast? Who can make war with him?’” (Rev 13:4)
“They WORSHIPED the beast and asked, ‘Who is like the beast? Who can make war with him?’” (Rev 13:4)
Vespasian’s and Titus’ “War” on “the Holy Ones”:
“[P]ower was given unto him to continue 42 mths (3.5 yrs). . . He made WAR with the HOLY ONES and OVERCAME THEM and was given power over all the nations.” (Rev 13:5-7)
“It will be for A TIME, TIMES AND HALF A TIME (3.5 yrs). When the power of the HOLY ONES is BROKEN, all these things will be completed.” (Dan 12:7)
The “HOLY ONES” of Dan 12:7 and Rev 13:5-7 are Christians killed during Titus’ and Vespasian’s 3.5 yr-long war on Israel.
“The Holy Ones” that Titus and Vespasian made “War” with are Christians who did NOT Flee to Pella:
Why Did Titus “Wage War” on the “Holy Ones” (Jews and Christians)? Also What Motivated Titus to Destroy the Temple, and Why Was He Forced to Order its Destruction in Secret? (Chronica 2:30.7; Wars 6.4.6)
Titus may have also run around the Temple to put out the fire to allow time to fully plunder it so that all the Temple’s wealth and treasure could be displayed for the triumph celebration. It is no secret that the Flavians needed something to justify their reign as they were not of the Caesar line. Titus and Vespasian used their triumph in Rome celebrating this victory in Israel for this purpose. “[I]t was part of the history of the triumph, to be judged against, to upstage or be upstaged by, the triumphs of predecessors and rivals.” (Beard, The Roman Triumph, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007), 32.) The Temple in Jerusalem was the largest and richest Temple in the Empire, and the grandiosity of a triumph was directly proportional to the amount of wealth on display. This fact alone ensured the Temple’s destruction as Titus and Vespasian needed an especially magnificent triumph to legitimize their violent usurpation. (Wars 7.5.5)
PRETERISM AND THE 10 HORNS
The beast of Rev 13:1-10 is the 4th beast of Dan 7. This beast is a chimera composed of the other 3 beasts thus it resembles a leopard (Greece), has bear feet (Medo-Persia), and a lion’s mouth (Babylon). (Rev 13:2) This beast also has the horns of Israel: The whore of Babylon (Jerusalem) is seated on seven heads (Rev 17:9) this is also where the 10 horns are (Rev 13:1) implying that the ten horns are Jewish (the 10 Zealot leaders). I believe that the 10 horns are also the 10 toes of the statue of Dan 2 which is a mixture of iron and clay. (Da 2:41) Clay represents Israel. (Is 64:8, Jr 18:6)
A REALIZED ESCHATOLOGY COMMENTARY ON REVELATION 6:
THE SEVEN SEALS
I believe the 4 horsemen of Rev 6 are heavenly beings with human counterparts. Could the 4 horsemen be the 4 kings who supplied auxiliary troops–Antiochus, Agrippa II, Sohemus and Malchus? (Wars 3.4.2.) Vespasian was also aided by 4 generals. (Midrash Rabbah Lam 1.31) It is also possible that Vespasian and/or Titus are 1 or 2 of the horsemen as the 1st rider was “given a crown” (Rev 6:2) and both men became Caesar in the middle of the war.
A PRETERIST ESCHATOLOGY COMMENTARY ON THE SEVEN SEALS
A COVENANT ESCHATOLOGY COMMENTARY ON REVELATION 8:
THE SEVEN TRUMPETS
With Israel in revolt, Rome 1st responded with the 12th legion in Tishri, a month beginning with the Feast of Trumpets—also called the Day of Judgment, on this day TRUMPETS are blown. Thus began the 7 trumpets and Jewish War!
A COVENANT ESCHATOLOGY COMMENTARY ON REVELATION:
THE SEVEN TRUMPETS AND BOWLS
The 7 trumpets and bowls were fulfilled in basically the same events. The 1st bowl is the 1st trumpet; the 2nd bowl, the 2nd trumpet and so on. As Apocalyptic literature, Rev is ancient poetry. Here real events are poetically depicted as plagues of Exodus fulfilling Dt 28:58-60. The 1st trumpet/bowl is the plague of hail and boils; the 2nd and 3rd, the plague of blood; the 4th and 5th, the plague of locusts, darkness and boils; the 6th, the plague of frogs; and the 7th, the plague of hail again.
“The 1st angel sounded his trumpet, and there came HAIL AND FIRE MIXED WITH BLOOD HURLED DOWN TO THE EARTH. A 3rd OF THE EARTH, TREES AND ALL THE GREEN GRASS WAS BURNED.” (Rev 8:7)
A PRETERIST ESCHATOLOGY COMMENTARY ON REVELATION: THE SEVEN TRUMPETS AND BOWLS
“Then there will be distress, unequaled from the beginning of the world until now—and never equaled again.” (Mt 24:21) What about WW2? Jesus’ spoke to Israelites and this was the worst war they ever faced. Concerning the fall of Jerusalem, Josephus says, “[N]either, did any other city ever suffer such miseries . . . from the beginning of the world.” (Wars 5.10.5) Mt 24:21 is not meant to be interpreted globally or it would contradict what is said about the 10th plague of Exodus: “There shall be a great cry throughout Egypt, such as was none like it, nor ever shall be.” (Ex 11:6)
“Something like a huge MOUNTAIN WAS THROWN INTO THE SEA. A 3rd of the SEA TURNED TO BLOOD, a 3rd of the creatures in the sea died, and a 3rd of the SHIPS WERE DESTROYED.” (Rev 8:8-9)
“A GREAT STAR FELL FROM THE SKY on a 3rd of the rivers and springs—the name of the star is WORMWOOD.” (Rev 8:10-11)
A FULFILLED ESCHATOLOGY COMMENTARY ON REVELATION: THE SEVEN TRUMPETS AND BOWLS
“THE RIVERS AND SPRINGS OF WATER BECAME BLOOD.” (Rev 16:4)
“They shed the blood of your saints and YOU HAVE GIVEN THEM BLOOD TO DRINK.” (Rev 16:6)
“THE SUN SCORCHED PEOPLE. THEY WERE SEARED BY THE INTENSE HEAT.” (Rev 16:8-9)
PRETERISM AND THE SEVEN TRUMPETS AND BOWLS
“I heard an EAGLE call: ‘WOE! WOE! WOE TO THE PEOPLE OF THE EARTH, because of the trumpets about to be sounded!” (Rev 8:13)
The 5th angel poured out his bowl on the throne of the BEAST, AND HIS KINGDOM WAS PLUNGED INTO DARKNESS. (Rev 16:10)
PRETERIST COMMENTARY ON REVELATION AND THE SEVEN TRUMPETS AND BOWLS
“The 6th angel poured his bowl on the EUPHRATES, AND IT DRIED UP FOR THE KINGS OF THE EAST.” (Rev 16:12)
“DEMONS PERFORMED MIRACULOUS SIGNS, and they went to the kings of the world, TO GATHER THEM FOR BATTLE.” (Rev 16:14)
“THEY GATHERED THE KINGS TOGETHER TO THE PLACE that in Hebrew is CALLED ARMAGEDDON.” (Rev 16:16)
PRETERISM AND THE SEVEN TRUMPETS AND BOWLS
“Then came LIGHTNING, THUNDER and an EARTHQUAKE.” (Rev 16:18)
THE GREAT CITY SPLIT INTO 3 PARTS AND THE CITIES OF THE NATIONS COLLAPSED. (Rev 16:19)
“And huge HAILSTONES EACH WEIGHING A TALENT [100 lbs] FELL UPON MEN.” (Rev 16:21)
PRETERIST EXPLANATION OF THE BLOOD THAT FLOWS UP TO A HORSE’S BRIDLE FOR 1,600 STADIA
Hyperbole like that in Rev 14:20 is common in the Bible and Jewish historical literature: “I will drench the land with your [Pharaoh’s] blood all the way to the mountains, and the ravines.” (Ezk 32:6) “Manasseh shed much innocent blood until he filled Jerusalem FROM ONE END TO ANOTHER.” (2 Ki 21:16) There are 3 different units of stadia. The one used in Rev is the itinerary stade. 1,600 itinerary stadia is 251.2 km, the exact length of the Jordan River (and Palestine itself). Thus Rev 14:20 echoes 2 Ki 21:16 in which blood fills the land “from one end to another.” Josephus uses similar language concerning the Jewish War: “Galilee was all over filled with fire and blood.”
“BLOOD FLOWED AS HIGH AS THE HORSES’ BRIDLES FOR 1,600 STADIA.” (Rev 14:20)
PRETERIST COMMENTARY ON REVELATION 19
“There was A WHITE HORSE, WHOSE RIDER IS CALLED FAITHFUL AND TRUE. THE ARMIES OF HEAVEN FOLLOWED HIM, RIDING WHITE HORSES.” (Rev 19:11,14)
“An angel called to the BIRDS, “COME, EAT THE FLESH OF ALL PEOPLE.” (Rev 19:17-18)
“The beast and the kings of the earth and their armies gathered together to make war against the rider on the horse and his army.” (Rev 19:19)
PRETERIST EXPLANATION OF REVELATION 19
Wealthy Jews killed Jesus: “You [the rich] have condemned and murdered the innocent one [Christ], who was not opposing you.” (Jm 5:1-6; Lk 11:39, 16:13-15) It was also the rich who persecuted the saints. (Jm 2:1-7) These Jews used Jesus’ divine claims to legitimize His death (Mt 26:65-66) though they truly wanted Jesus dead to prevent a war with Rome. (Jn 11:47-50; 19:12) The Messiah was expected to rule over a sovereign Israel. Israel was a Roman province so if Israel made Jesus king this would trigger a war. A war would result in pillaging and destruction of property invariably leaving the rich penniless, also the Temple, the source of their income, could be destroyed. This is why the rich did not want Jesus to be king (Mt 2:1-3, Lk 19:27) it is also why, “It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for the rich to enter the kingdom of God.” (Mt 19:24) 1 Ti 6:10 says, “The love of money is the root of all evil” as it was greed that caused the Jews to kill Jesus and His people and it was for this greed that led to murder that the Jews were punished at the end of the age. (Col 3:5-6; Rev 6:10-11; 17:6)
“The REST were killed by the SWORD from the mouth of the rider on the horse, and the birds ate their flesh.” (Rev 19:21)
PRETERIST EXPLANATION OF REVELATION 20
The Millennium is NOT an end time prophecy! The Millennium began in A.D. 70 and is the first 1000 yrs of the Messianic kingdom, the New Covenant, and the New Jerusalem.
The Preterist View that the Beast is Rome under its Two 1st Century Dynasties and the Idea that the Millennium is Literally 1000 yrs Confirm Each Other.
Though the whore of Babylon fell in A.D. 70, the beast could not fall geopolitically at that time (this shall be proven below). Though the beast could not die in A.D. 70 its death must occur SOON afterwards. “SOON” in the Bible is up to 40 years. (Recall Jesus was supposed to come SOON and did so about 40 years later.) Thus 26 years is certainly “SOON” after A.D. 70 and also within the lifetime of many of Jesus’ contemporaries thus honoring audience relevance and all time statements. A.D. 70 is the climax. But the terminus of the eschaton was in A.D. 96 when all end time prophecy was finally wrapped up:
If the Sea Beast is Leviathan (Hydra), the Land Beast is Behemoth:
The chant “Who is like the beast?” (Rev 13:4) is echoed in Job’s description of Leviathan: “Nothing on earth is like him[.]” (Job 41:33) If the sea beast is Leviathan, the land beast must be Behemoth who is often paired with Leviathan in the Bible (Job 40:15-41:34) and Jewish and Christian tradition (1 Enoch 60:7-8; 4 Ezra 6:49-51; 2 Baruch 29:3-4; Lev R 13:3, Midrash Rabbah; b. Baba Bathra 74b-75a). The behemoth was a LAND beast with HORNS just like the land beast of Rev13:11: “With his HORNS the BEHEMOTH will gore . . .” (Akdamut) According to the Midrash Lev R 13:3 and Jewish haggadoth, the Behemoth is GENTILE, not Jewish–a fact that confirms the idea that the land beast is the Flavian Dynasty presented above.
The death of the beast at the end of the Flavian Dynasty (A.D. 96) and the 1st Crusade (Battle of Gog and Magog) (A.D. 1096) ARE EXACTLY 1000 YEARS APART (to the year).
The beast is not just Rome. Rev 17:11 says that the beast is “himself also an eighth [king].” Rev 17:11 defines the beast “himself” as a series of 8 kings (9 if you count the severed head of Rev 13:3). The 4 beasts of Dan 7 are also defined this way: “The four great beasts are four KINGS that will rise from the earth.” (Dan 7:17.) The beasts of Dan and Rev are each a series of kings. The 4th beast of Daniel and the beast of Revelation is most specifically Rome under its 2 first-century dynasties, the Caesar and Flavian Dynasties. If the beast is Rome under the authority of a specific set of 9 kings then when those kings die obviously the beast dies with it. The beast died with Nero (the last of the Caesar family Dynasty) and rose from the dead (Abyss) with Vespasian (the 1st of the Flavian Dynasty). (Galba, Otho and Vitellius are not heads of the beast as the beast died (“now was not”/was in the Abyss) at the end of the Caesar Dynasty.) THIS MEANS THE BEAST IS ROME UNDER ITS TWO 1ST CENTURY DYNASTIES. If the beast is cast into the Abyss at the death of Nero (end of the Caesar Dynasty), this implies it is not cast into the Abyss again until the end of the Flavian Dynasty (A.D. 96) since the Flavians are the beast whose wound had been healed / beast who rose from the Abyss. Because the beast is simply an empire under the authority of two distinct royal lines the empire does not need to fall geopolitically at its death. In fact, if Rome fell in A.D 70 it could NOT be the beast as will be discussed shortly.
Preterism and the Death of the Beast: How Could Rome Be the Beast if Rome did Not Fall in A.D.70?
As stated above the beast and the whore of Babylon are not the same. The beast is Rome under the Caesars and Flavians and the whore of Babylon is Rome’s scorned lover, Jerusalem, which fell at the hand of the beast in A.D. 70 (Rev 17:16). In fact, if Rome fell in A.D 70 it would contradict Daniel 7:11-12: “[T]he beast was slain and its body cast into the fire. (The other beasts had been stripped of authority [fallen], but LIVED for a time.)”
Do Rev 19:20 and Dan 7:11 Predict the Same Event?
“The two [beast and false prophet] were thrown ALIVE into the fiery lake of burning sulfur”?
Notice that Rev 19:20 says that the beast and false prophet were thrown “ALIVE” into the fire whereas Dan 7:11 implies that the beast was “SLAIN” or DEAD before being burned. This seemingly contradictory detail implies that Dan 7:11 was fulfilled AFTER Rev 19:20. As stated above, Rev 19:20 was fulfilled in part in Vespasian’s and Titus’ LIVING presence in the burning of Jerusalem/Palestine while Dan 7:11 was fulfilled in their cremation not long after.
DANIEL 2:35 PROVES THAT THE SHATTERING OF THE STATUE IS ALSO NOT ABOUT THE FALL OF A KINGDOM
In the statue of Dan 2 Babylon is the gold head; Medo-Persia, the silver chest; Greece, the bronze belly; and Rome, the iron legs. The feet of the statue are a mixture of iron (Rome) and clay (Israel). In Dan 2:34 a rock hits the statue on its feet and shatters it. Jesus says that this rock of Dan 2:34 representing himself would hit Israel (Mt 21:43-45) implying that the clay is Israel as it often is (Is 64:8, Jr 18:6). In A.D. 66 Israel (the clay) revolted against Rome (the iron): “And just as you saw the iron mixed with baked clay, so the people will be a mixture and will not remain united, any more than iron mixes with clay. (Dan 2:43)
PRETERIST COMMENTARY ON ZECHARIAH 14
Zc 14 was fulfilled in the Maccabean Wars of the 2nd century B.C. During this war the Maccabees successfully fought off the Seleucid Empire after Antiochus Epiphanies entered Jerusalem, desecrated its temple and forced the Jews to stop practicing the Law.
“I will gather ALL NATIONS to Jerusalem to fight against it; the city will be captured.” (Zc 14:2)
“Half the city will be exiled, but the rest will not be taken from it.” (Zc 14:2)
“THE MT OF OLIVES WILL BE SPLIT IN 2.” (Zc 14:4)
“Then the LORD will come, and all the holy ones with him.” (Zc 14:5)
“The LORD will fight against those nations.” (Zc 14:3)
“When evening comes, there will be light.” (Zc 14:6)
“But Jerusalem will be raised up and remain in its place.” (Zc 14:10)
“Their flesh will rot while they are still standing.” (Zc 14:12)
“Then all the nations that attacked Jerusalem will worship the LORD and celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles. If the EGYPTIANS do not take part, they will have no rain.” (Zc 14:16-18)
Apocalyptic prophecies were also fulfilled in Old Testament History much more literally than previously supposed
“If what a prophet proclaims in the name of the LORD does not take place or come true, that is a message the LORD has not spoken. That prophet has spoken presumptuously, so do not be alarmed (Deuteronomy 18:22).” Though Bible prophecy is often written in an apocalyptic or poetic style, Deuteronomy 18:22 clearly shows that Biblical prophecy is not empty rhetoric, but rather must have at least a literal core of truth to it so as to be recognizable and verifiable. If not, then Israel could not be expected to recognize its real and false prophets. The following Preterist commentary shows that even the most fantastic apocalyptic predictions–though often hyperbolic–were fulfilled in the Jewish War shockingly literally. This fact implies that apocalyptic predictions fulfilled in Old Testament history were also fulfilled in a similar manner. The following are the two most frequently cited examples used to interpret apocalyptic language purely symbolically:
How was every mountain lowered and every valley raised? How were the sun, moon and stars darkened?
Preterism also fixes two of Christianity’s biggest problems:
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